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Most of us use automatic doors. In shopping centers, clothing stores, supermarkets, hospitals… in short, we find them everywhere. But, although it is a very popular system for automated access to these spaces, not everyone knows how it works. In this post, we will analyze the principle of operation of automatic doors, their characteristics, specifications, and more.

To begin with, let’s simply answer the following question:


An automatic door is a door (usually sliding) that has an opening and closing mechanism powered by a power source (usually electrical) and that eliminates the need for manual opening.

They can be single or double doors. The panels used are generally made of tempered glass, a material that provides elegance and favors the use of natural lighting indoors.

These systems do not use handles for the glass panels, nor do they use hinges or extra accessories; they only need the minimum connecting elements.

In general, the automatic system comes in a kit, made up of a variety of controllers and mechanical and electronic elements, which make the movement possible.

They are a modern product that has finishes in satin stainless steel and in black, combining with practically any space.

puertas automáticas Panamá

Now that we have the definition clear, we are going to better understand the main parts that allow the automated movement of this type of doors:


Microprocessor controller

The microprocessor controller is the brain of the automated system. It is an electronic system that manages and manages the operation of the motor that allows opening and closing. This mechanical process control has a continuous learning function. This feature causes the controller to register and adapt to operating conditions, requiring little or no manual reprogramming.

It has a screen for access to general parameter settings and offers activation information for the conditions of total and partial opening, total blocking, entry blocking, emergency system and UPS power.

Brushless DC Motor

The motor used in this system is a 24 V, 55 W, brushless DC motor. These electric motors are durable and silent and among their main characteristics we have:

– Greater efficiency. This type of motor, since it does not have brushes, reduces its mechanical friction and allows a better use of the energy consumed and therefore the output power.

– Greater control over engine speed. In the case of automatic doors, this feature allows variable and more precise control over the opening and closing of the system.

– Greater torque in confined spaces. They are ideal motors for slender, small systems or where it is not necessary to take up a lot of space.

Function control

This is a digital remote control with password. This item is an LCD function control that has the following functions: Open, Half Open, Exit Only, Locked, and Auto. It comes from the factory with a default password that can be changed.


The most widely used indoor and outdoor sensors in this system can be photocells and microwaves. Sensors with integrated photocells avoid the installation of photocells on the doors. On the other hand, microwave sensors are dual function of infrared and microwave type.

Rails with covers

The rails and covers are generally made of aluminum. Finishes may vary, the most common being satin stainless steel. If another color is required, it is left to the customization of the project. The rail is in charge of driving and supporting the bearings and the cover protects them and the other additional elements of the kit (motor, controller, etc.).

Bearings, clips and guides

The characteristic fittings of the system are the bearings, which allow the movement of the doors eliminating unnecessary friction, the clips that are in charge of holding the glass panels and at the same time allow the connection to the bearings and the guides for the doors.


Now that we know the parts of the kit and its main characteristics, we can explain the operation of the automatic doors:

First, the sensors detect the presence of an object, in this case a body. Upon detecting it, they send a signal to the microprocessor controller, which receives the message and processes the information.

Depending on the condition for which the controller is programmed, the response will be different. In general conditions, the response of the controller will be opening, activating the motor for the time necessary to open the doors. These will be open as long as there is a body in the detection field of the sensors.

Once the area surrounding the door is free, where the sensors can detect objects, they send the message to the controller and it reactivates the motor to proceed with the closing of the system.


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